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Special categories of waste

  • Packaging waste
  • Packaging waste management is a complex activity aimed at preventing the landfilling of waste packaging.
    Not only is it detrimental to the environment, but the landfilling of packaging waste represents quite significant economic damage because substances with valuable material and/or energy properties are landfilled (paper, cardboard, metal, plastics, glass, wood).
     
    Packaging is everything that, in relation to the product, is used for protection, transport, use, information and environmental purposes, and which has to be disposed of or thrown away prior to or during the consumption of the product (contents). At that moment, packaging becomes waste.
     
    Packaging waste is divided into the following categories of material:
    • paper/cardboard,  
    • plastics,
    • wood, 
    • metal, 
    • composite, 
    • glass, 
    • textile,
    The Republic of Croatia is implementing the deposit scheme for waste packaging units (bottles and cans) made from PET, glass, and Al/Fe.
  • Electrical and electronic waste
  • Electrical and electronic waste (EE waste) falls into special categories of waste (PKO). It contains valuable metal and non-metal raw materials which are obtained through material recovery (recycling), and which can also be used for energy generation. In addition, the parts for reuse are separated.


    Categories of electrical and electronic equipment:
     
    1. Heat transfer equipment
    2. Displays, monitors, and equipment with the surface larger than 100 cm2
    3. Light bulbs
    4. Large equipment (any with outer dimensions larger than 50 cm)
    5. Small equipment (no outer dimensions larger than 50 cm)
    6. Small IT equipment
     
     
  • Waste tyres
  • A tyre means any product under Article 2 of the Ordinance that is placed on the market as an independent product or a component part of another product or a set of wheels that can be classified in the categories listed in Annex I to this Ordinance.
     
    Annex II to the same Ordinance contains a non-exhaustive list of products included in the categories listed in Annex I;

    A waste tyre is the tyre that is waste in accordance with the Act;
     
    The method of waste tyres management is a set of measures which include separate collection and recovery of waste tyres for the use in material or energy purposes.
     
    In the Republic of Croatia, waste tyres management is organised by the Fund pursuant to the provisions of the Act on Sustainable Waste Management (OG 91/13) and the Ordinance on the management of waste tyres (OG 113/16).
     
    Separate collection of waste tyres is provided through the licensed collectors’ scheme.
     
    Waste tyres must not be landfilled.
    The holders can take waste tyres to the civic amenity site, service shop when replacing the tyres, or to the collector’s warehouse. A licensed collector is obliged to take waste tyres from the holder of waste tyres free of charge.
     
    Waste tyres collection service includes the collection (taking over and transport to the collector’s warehouse), sorting, storage, preparation, and transport of waste tyres to the treatment operatorA tyre means any product under Article 2 of the Ordinance that is placed on the market as an independent product or a component part of another product or a set of wheels that can be classified in the categories listed in Annex I to this Ordinance.
     
    Annex II to the same Ordinance contains a non-exhaustive list of products included in the categories listed in Annex I;

    A waste tyre is the tyre that is waste in accordance with the Act;
     
    The method of waste tyres management is a set of measures which include separate collection and recovery of waste tyres for the use in material or energy purposes.
     
    In the Republic of Croatia, waste tyres management is organised by the Fund pursuant to the provisions of the Act on Sustainable Waste Management (OG 91/13) and the Ordinance on the management of waste tyres (OG 113/16).
     
    Separate collection of waste tyres is provided through the licensed collectors’ scheme.
     
    Waste tyres must not be landfilled.
    The holders can take waste tyres to the civic amenity site, service shop when replacing the tyres, or to the collector’s warehouse. A licensed collector is obliged to take waste tyres from the holder of waste tyres free of charge.
     
    Waste tyres collection service includes the collection (taking over and transport to the collector’s warehouse), sorting, storage, preparation, and transport of waste tyres to the treatment operator.

  • Waste oils
  • Waste oil is any oil (plant, animal, mineral, synthetic, industrial insulation, and/or thermal oil) which is no longer usable for its originally intended purpose.
    We differentiate between waste cooking oils and waste lubricating oils.
    Waste cooking oils which are degradable and represent non-hazardous waste, comprise all oils resulting from the catering and hospitality sector, industry, trades and crafts, medical services, public services, and other similar activities where more than 20 meals per day are prepared. They are a valuable raw material for the production of biodiesel.
    Waste lubricating oils are hazardous waste because 1 litre of oil can contaminate one million litres of water, or permanently pollute the soil because, in general, lubricants are not biodegradable. They represent a valuable raw material because they can be regenerated and used as the raw material to produce fresh lubricating oils, or in the process of material recovery they can be used to obtain esters used in the production of soap, washing agents and similar. Waste lubricating oils are also a valuable energy generating product in power and
    production plants with installed equipment power greater or equal to 3 MW, because this type of recovery prevents environmental pollution.
    Waste oils management includes the procedures of collection, pre-treatment/conditioning, and their regeneration or material recovery and energy recovery.
    In the process of waste oils management it is prohibited to:
    • discharge waste oils into surface wasters, ground waters, coastal waters, and drainage systems,
    • dispose and/or discharge waste oils detrimental to the soil, as well as any uncontrolled discharge or residues from the waste oils treatment,
    • recover and/or dispose of waste oils causing air pollution above the thresholds stipulated in the regulations in force, and which affect human health, and flora and fauna,
    • collect waste oils into containers that are not duly equipped for holding waste oils.
  • End-of-life vehicles
  • An end-of-life vehicle is a vehicle which due to damage, deterioration, and other causes will be, is intended to be, or has to be discarded by its owner.
    Due to the possibility of uncontrolled discharge of liquids, end-of-life vehicles are hazardous for the environment and they demand special care in the process of their disposal.
     
    Management of end-of-life vehicles and their parts is a set of measures that include collection, treatment, reuse of parts of end-of-life vehicles, recovery of end-of-life vehicles, and disposal of the newly formed waste which cannot be recovered.
     
    The holder of an end-of-life vehicle is obliged to hand over the end-of-life vehicle to the collector, preferably the complete vehicle, at the collector’s warehouse or by calling the collector to the location where the end-of-life vehicle is located.
     
    When the end-of-life vehicle is handed over, the certificate of destruction of an end-of-life vehicle (the POOV form) is issued, which is required for cancelling the registration.
     
    A complete (whole) end-of-life vehicle is the end-of-life vehicle which must have the engine (cylinder head, engine block and oil pan) and the bodywork (vehicle frame, bonnet, trunk). An end-of-life vehicle with missing part is considered to be an incomplete end-of-life vehicle.
     
    The categories of motor vehicles that are accepted pursuant to the provisions of the Ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles are:
    • vehicle category M1, motor vehicles for the carriage of persons and their luggage comprising not more than eight seating positions in addition to the driver’s seating position,
    • vehicle category N1, motor vehicles for the carriage of goods, having a maximum mass not exceeding 3,5 tonnes, and   
    • vehicle category L2, there-wheel mopeds 
     Notice for the holders of end-of-life vehicles

    Application for issuing the certificate of verification of vehicle registration in Croatia (2020)  
     
  • Waste batteries and accumulators
  • A battery or accumulator means any source of electrical energy generated by direct conversion of chemical energy and consisting of one or more primary battery cells (non-rechargeable) or consisting of one or more secondary battery cells (rechargeable).
     
    Batteries (accumulators) contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and are consequently often very toxic, so they command a specific method of recycling.
     
    The majority of waste batteries (accumulators) are classified as hazardous waste.
     
    Hazardous waste comprises lead batteries, nickel-cadmium catteries, batteries containing mercury, and separately collected electrolytes from batteries and accumulators.
     
    The main advantage of recycling batteries is a reduction in the primary production of materials and energy generating products, and the emissions of mercury, lead, and cadmium in the environment.
     

  • Waste containing asbestos
  • Asbestos is a mineral crystal with fibrous structure. There are six (6) basic types of asbestos: actinolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, crocidolite (blue), chrysotile (white) and amosite (brown). The most often used asbestos material in the Republic of Croatia used to be chrysotile, which is the least dangerous from the ones listed.
     
    Having regard to its very good properties, asbestos used to be added to various products in order to enhance their mechanical and chemical properties, and resistance to water, fire, heat, noise, electricity, wear and tear and friction.
     
    It is considered that over years-long processing and use of asbestos minerals in several thousand products (for example, plastering mortar, insulation material, façade cladding, flat and corrugated roofing sheets, wall and floor tiles, roofing tiles, brick, cement water pipes, asbestos gaskets, brake disks, fire blankets, working gloves, asbestos roofing boards, sealing compounds, etc.), there is at least one or several types of asbestos fibres.
     
    Most of them are in use even today, although with due care and under strict control since there is no replacement technical material. Asbestos is used in shipyards, spacecraft electrical industry, hospitals, schools, libraries, state institutions’ buildings, office buildings, companies, houses, buildings, and in many other industries.
     
    However, studies have shown that asbestos particles, the so-called asbestos dust, contain needle-like fibres which are released into the air (asbestos emission), and which after a certain period of time can cause in people, due to their coming into contact with them in the industry or immediate vicinity, serious chronic disease (asbestosis), and even death.
     
    The prohibition of manufacturing, marketing and use of asbestos and materials containing asbestos in the Republic of Croatian entered into force on 1 January 2006.
     
    NOTICE ON TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF FINANCING THE COLLECTION OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE CONTAINING ASBESTOS   
     
    In the previous years, the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund financially supported the system of management of construction waste containing asbestos, by reimbursing the authorised collectors for the cost incurred by accepting this type of waste from the citizens. However, the entire system of construction waste management has to be reorganised in a comprehensive and systematic manner, which will be possible only after certain prerequisites are fulfilled. For the purpose of further financing, it is necessary, under the Act on Sustainable Waste Management, to adopt a regulation pursuant to which the Fund will start collecting the charge for the disposal of construction waste. These dedicated funds would provide the resources for financing the system of management of construction waste containing asbestos and co-financing the construction of civic amenity sites (recycling yards) for construction waste.

     This does not mean that the citizens cannot properly dispose of asbestos waste through their utility companies since 17 landfills in Croatia have the cells for the disposal of this type of waste. In addition, according to the provisions of the Ordinance on waste management, the citizens can dispose at the civic amenity site up to 200 kg of this type of waste once every 6 months. Likewise, pursuant to the provisions of the Ordinance, the units of local self-government are obliged to compensate in full the entity managing the amenity site (in most cases the utility company) the costs of management of construction waste containing asbestos generated in the households of the users of their services
     
     
  • Other special categories of waste
    • Pathological waste: detached human body parts – amputated limbs, tissues, or organs removed during surgery, tissues removed for diagnostic purposes, placenta, foetuses, laboratory animals and their body parts.
    • Infectious waste: waste containing pathogens that can due to their type, concentration, or count infect the people exposed to them – cultures and stocks from microbiological laboratory, equipment parts, material and stocks that came into contact with the blood or secretions from patients with infections, or that was used in surgical procedures, wound dressing and autopsies, waste from the isolation ward, waste from the  dialysis unit, I.V. supplies, gloves and other disposable stocks, and waste that came into contact with laboratory animals inoculated with infectious material, etc.
    • Sharp objects, needles, blood lancets, syringes, scalpels, and other objects that can sting or cut.
    • Pharmaceutical waste: includes pharmaceutical products, medications and chemicals returned form the units where they had been spilled, scattered, prepared but not used, or they are expired, or they have to be discarded for any other reason.
    • Chemical waste: discarded solid, liquid or gaseous chemicals used in medical or diagnostic procedure or experiments, cleaning or disinfection. It is divided in hazardous chemical waste – toxic, corrosive, flammable, reactive and genotoxic substances, and inert chemical waste with no such properties.
    • Pressurised vessels: bottles with insert pressurised gases mixed with active substances (antibiotic, disinfectants, insecticide, etc.) that are applied in the form of aerosols, and which can explode if exposed to high temperatures.
    • Radioactive waste: subject to special regulations.

    With the above hazardous waste generated in healthcare facilities, inert medical waste is also produced. It is not dangerous, its composition is similar to municipal waste, and it is produced in the kitchens, restaurants, offices, etc. It is disposed of like the municipal waste because it is not a result of medical procedures, and it does not pose a threat to the health and environment.
     


    Waste sludge
     
    Waste from the production of TiO2 and PCT
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE
    Titanium dioxide or titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2) is produced substance used as the highest quality white pigment in the production of coatings and paint, photo-catalysts, and a wide range of personal care products (such as, for example white toothpaste), cosmetic products (sunscreen, lipstick, soap, etc.) because it is nontoxic, i.e. inert
    In the form of nanoparticles, which are nowadays used in the products that come into direct contact with the skin (such as sunscreen or mineral makeup), it is becoming more widespread as the substitute for the substances that are considered to be carcinogenic and/or to cause hormonal imbalance.
    However, by reducing the size of titanium dioxide particles it is becoming more active, and in accordance with the studies it has been proved that the nanoparticles (particle size from 1 to 100 nm) of titanium dioxide settle in the human cells (because of its size, there are no processes to remove it from the body) and they can cause single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks.
    Pursuant to the provisions of the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council and the Ordinance on waste management from the production of titanium dioxide, collectors, and authorised persons are prohibited to:
    • release production waste into the marine environment, which also includes digging into the seabed, i.e. submerging the waste,
    • dispose of production waste on or in the ground, and
    • deep-inject production waste into the ground.
    Pursuant to the provisions of the Act on Sustainable Waste Management in the Republic of Croatia, waste from the production of titanium dioxide is classified as a special category of waste.

    WASTE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) AND POLYCHLORINATED TERPHENYL (PCT)
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT) (hereinafter: PCBs) belong to a large group of synthetic organochlorinated compounds that mutually differ in terms of physical-chemical and toxicological properties because they have the tendency of bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the environment and in the food chain. Due to this, people can be exposed to PCBs through contaminated (polluted) water and food (fish, meat, and dairy products, etc.).
     
    PCBs are solely synthetic compounds that started to be produced commercially in 1929 as dielectric liquids and oils for heat transmission (thermal oils) due to good insulation properties and stability at high temperatures. They have never been used as individual compounds but always in the mixtures of several chloro derivatives, most often in the production of transformers and capacitors.
     
    Scientific research so far indicates to various negative effects of PCBs on human health because their presence in the human organism can cause different disorders, such as endocrine homeostasis, reproductive toxicity, various tumours, etc.
     
    The equipment containing PCBs (hereinafter: equipment) is any equipment and device that contains or that contained PCB, such as transformers, capacitors, containers with residual PCBs and similar, and which have not been decontaminated. The equipment which may contain PCBs is handled as if it contains PCB, unless the decontamination in its production and maintenance, or the analysis of an accredited laboratory proves that it does not contain PCB.
     
    It is prohibited to: 
    • discharge PCB or waste PCB into the environment,
    • fill or top up the transformer with PCB,
    • separate PCB from other substances for their reuse,
    • incinerate PCB or waste PCB at sea,
    • temporarily store PCB, waste PCB, or equipment containing PCB, for a period longer than 12 months before decontamination or disposal procedure,
    • produce, place on the market and use PCB separately, in the products or as a component part of products, except for the application pursuant to Article 4 of the Regulation (EC) No 850/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 April 2004 on persistent organic pollutants and amending Directive  79/117/EEC (OJ L 158., 30.4.2004.)